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为什么要发展生物质颗粒机能

来源:admin 发布时间:2016-11-03 16:32 浏览次数:
加快发展风能、太阳能、生物质颗粒机能、水能、地热能,安全高效发展核电”。其中,生物质颗粒机能是以农林等有机废弃物和边际性土地种植的能源植物为原料,生产的绿色能源。生物质颗粒机能具有资源丰富、可再生、清洁环保、低碳排放、储存和运输便利等特点,并且与“三农”关系紧密。在我国,大力发展生物质颗粒机能意义重大。
Speed up the development of wind, solar, biomass pellet function, hydropower, geothermal energy, safe and efficient development of nuclear power ". Among them, the function of biomass particles in agriculture and forestry and marginal land to grow organic wastes such as energy plant as raw material, production of green energy. Biomass granule function has rich resources, renewable, clean environmental protection, low carbon, storage and transportation is convenient wait for a characteristic, and the close relationship with "three agriculture". In our country, develop the function of biomass particles is of great significance.
党的十八届五中全会提出,“加快发展风能、太阳能、生物质颗粒机能、水能、地热能,安全高效发展核电”。其中,生物质颗粒机能是以农林等有机废弃物和边际性土地种植的能源植物为原料,生产的绿色能源。生物质颗粒机能具有资源丰富、可再生、清洁环保、低碳排放、储存和运输便利等特点,并且与“三农”关系紧密。在我国,大力发展生物质颗粒机能意义重大。
The fifth plenary session of the party's 18, "speed up the development of wind, solar, biomass pellet function, hydropower, geothermal energy, safe and efficient development of nuclear power". Among them, the function of biomass particles in agriculture and forestry and other organic waste and marginal land to grow energy plant as raw material, production of green energy. Function of biomass granule has rich resources, renewable, clean environmental protection, low carbon, storage and transportation is convenient wait for a characteristic, and the close relationship with "three agriculture". In our country, develop the function of biomass particles is of great significance.
  一、生物质颗粒机能具有极佳的环境效益与经济效益
A, the function of biomass granule has good environmental benefits and economic benefits
  露地焚烧秸秆屡禁不止,成为当今雾霾的季节性主要来源之一 ;畜禽粪便滥排,成为水体与大气的重要污染源 ;林业采伐、造材、加工剩余物大量积存,成为森林火灾与病虫害之隐患……生物质颗粒机产业可以使这些有机“废弃物”和“污染源”在无害化和资源化过程中,转化生产出高端绿色能源与材料,为现代农业和农民增收开辟一片新天地。
The outdoor burning straw, become the main source of seasonal fog today; Livestock and poultry dung has erected, become an important pollution source of water and atmospheric; Forest logging, building materials, processing residue piling up, become a hidden danger of forest fires and plant diseases and insect pests... Biomass pellet machine industry can make these organic "waste" and "pollution" in the process of harmless and resource recovery, the conversion to produce high-end green energy and materials, for the modern agriculture and increasing farmers' income, set up a new land.
  当今环保,以减排和克霾为重。相比燃煤发电,生物质颗粒机发电优势明显。生物质颗粒机固体燃料低灰低硫,氮氧化物、二氧化硫、二氧化碳以及烟尘颗粒的排放远低于燃煤发电。据统计,截至 2013年底,全国已有 28个省市自治区开发了生物质颗粒机发电项目,累计核准容量 1.2万兆瓦,上网电量 356亿千瓦时。生物质颗粒机发电集中于我国农业和经济发达的东部地区,苏鲁粤浙四省上网电量就占到全国的 48%。
Today's environmental protection to mitigation and grams haze. Compared to coal, biomass pellet machine power generation. Biomass pellet machine solid fuel low ash low sulfur, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and soot particle emissions is far less than coal-fired power generation. According to statistics, by the end of 2013, the country has 28 provinces and autonomous regions to develop the biomass pellet machine power generation project, approved the cumulative capacity of 12000 megawatts, Internet power 35.6 billion KWH. Biomass pellet machine power concentrated in the east of China agricultural and economic developed area, the dabie-sulu four provinces of guangdong and zhejiang power will account for 48% of the country on the Internet.
  减排克霾的难点是全国 50余万台 20吨位以下的中小燃煤锅炉。它们难以清洁燃烧,高度分散于城镇,体小量大,年耗标准煤 2.7亿吨,排放烟尘 60万吨、二氧化硫 226万吨、氮氧化物 100 万吨。“煤改气”当然好,但是“气”源极缺,成本又高。如果把这些锅炉改造后使用生物质颗粒机成型燃料,那就会呈现另一种景象。生物质颗粒机成型燃料供热排放的烟尘、二氧化硫和氮氧化物基本同于天然气排放标准,供热价格虽稍高于当前煤炭,也仅为天然气的 60% 和重油的 70%。同时,采用成型燃料供热,还可以消耗千万吨级的作物秸秆,创造众多工作岗位,增加农民收入。
Grams haze of the difficulties is the country more than 50 ten thousand sets of below 20 tonnage of middle and small coal-fired boiler. They are difficult to clean combustion, high dispersion in urban, body small, year 270 million tons of standard coal consumption, emission of smoke 600000 tons of 600000 tons, 2.26 million tons of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. "Coal to gas" and of course good, but the "gas" the source, and high cost. If the boiler modified using biomass pellet machine molding fuel, it will present another scene. Biomass pellet fuel heating machine molding emissions of soot, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide gas emissions standards, the same heating prices are slightly higher than the current coal, and only 60% of the 60% of the natural gas and heavy fuel oil. At the same time, adopt the molding fuel heating, also can use thousand tons crop straw, create many jobs, increase farmers' income.
畜禽粪便、加工业的有机废水废渣等高含水量有机污染源是环保治理的重点,最好的办法就是沼气化,转污为能。沼气化即在厌氧条件下经微生物作用使之无害化,产生含甲烷约 60% 的沼气,也可净化提纯为甲烷含量达 80% 或 95% 以上、品质同于普通天然气的生物天然气(BNG)。
Organic wastewater of poultry and animal feces, processing industry waste residues such as water content of organic pollution is the focus of environmental management, the best thing to do is methane, turn to. Biogas, namely under anaerobic conditions by the microbial action make it harmless, methane which was produced from about 60% of the biogas, also can purify purification for methane content of 80% or more than 80%, the quality the same as ordinary gas biological gas (BNG).
  生物天然气可并入普通天然气管网,也可生成压缩态的车用燃料。据有关资料,每立方米生物天然气比 1升汽油可多驱动汽车行驶15%的里程,售价仅为汽油的 85%— 90% ;尾气中的有害气体排放量仅为汽油的 10% ~ 50%。2012 年,欧洲的沼气工厂有 13800 多家,生产生物天然气约 140亿立方米。德国自 1999年到 2009年的 10年间,生物燃气工厂由 850 个增加到 4780 个,装机容量由 49兆瓦发展到 1600兆瓦,超过了水电。
Creatures can be incorporated into the common natural gas pipeline network, natural gas can also generate squeezed state of vehicle fuel. According to relevant data, per cubic meter of biological gas can be more than 1 liter of gasoline to drive the car mileage, 15% gasoline costs a mere 85% - 85%; Only for gasoline exhaust the harmful gas emissions of 10% ~ 50%. In 2012, the European biogas plant more than 13800, the production of about 14 billion cubic meters of natural gas. Germany from 1999 to 1999, 10 years, bio-gas plants increased from 850 to 850, the installed capacity by 49 mw to 1600 mw, over the water and electricity.
  我国一直重视发展农村户用沼气,近年来才开始促进沼气产业化, 2011年 3月才在广西以淀粉厂高浓度有机废水为原料完成了国内第一个日产1万立方米以上的生物天然气生产。北京德青源和山东民和两家大型养殖场分别日产 2万和 3万立方米沼气。河南天冠酒精厂日产沼气 30万立方米,主要用于农村供热。 2015年环保部和国家能源局联合开展了内蒙古生物天然气示范区建设。我国生物天然气迎来了发展的春天。
China has always attached great importance to developing the rural household biogas, in recent years to promote the industrialization of methane, in March 2011 to starch factory in guangxi high concentration organic wastewater as raw material to finished the domestic first nissan more than 10000 cubic meters of natural gas production. Beijing green source and shandong and two large farms nissan 2 and 30000 cubic meters of methane gas, respectively. Henan day crown biogas alcohol plant nissan 300000 cubic meters, it is mainly used for heating in the countryside. In 2015, the ministry and the national energy administration carried out biological gas demonstration area construction in Inner Mongolia. Our country the development of biological gas in the spring.
  据中国工程院 2014年资料,2009年我国规模化养殖畜禽粪便排放总量约 8.37 亿吨,具有 470 亿立方米的沼气生产潜力。如果以 1:2的比例配以秸秆等其它有机废弃物,则具有年产 1000亿立方米以上的生物天然气生产潜力,相当于 2018年开始由俄罗斯进口天然气量的 3倍。
According to 2014 data from the Chinese academy of engineering, 2009, our country mass breeding livestock and poultry manure emissions about 837 million tons, with 47 billion cubic meters of methane production potential. If in a ratio of 1:2 matched with straw and other organic wastes, are with annual output of more than 100 billion cubic meters of natural gas production potential, the equivalent of 2018 started by three times the amount of Russian gas imports.
  此外,生物质颗粒机诸能源品种的生产和消费过程都是低碳的,沼气与生物天然气生产过程更是负碳,而且能使植物营养物质最大限度地回归土壤,在变废为宝的同时,还能够解决农民的用能和增收问题。
In addition, biomass pellet machine all the varieties of energy production and consumption process is low carbon, methane gas production process and biological carbon negative, and can make the plant nutrients to maximize the return to the soil, at the same time of waste, can also solve the problem of can use and income of farmers.
二、技术的突破促使生物质颗粒机能再现生机
Second, the technical breakthrough biomass granule function life again
  水能、风能、太阳能以至核能等只能产生电与热产品,而生物质颗粒机既产电与热,更有固、气、液三态绿色能源以及绿色材料与有机化工产品,举凡石化基产品多能以生物基原料替代。在对化石能源的替代中,液态清洁燃料仍占主导地位。20世纪 70 年代全球石油危机期间,美欧和巴西在寻求替代能源中首先开发了以玉米和甘蔗等为原料的燃料乙醇,现全球年产达 8000万吨。但随着生产规模的扩大,与粮食供应之间的矛盾加深,在 2008年的全球粮食危机中倍受质疑。
Hydropower, wind energy, solar energy and nuclear energy, etc. Products can only generate electricity and heat, and the biomass pellet machine, electricity and heat production is more solid, gas and liquid state green energy and green materials and organic chemical products, such as petrochemical products can substitute their biomass feedstocks. In the alternative of fossil energy, clean liquid fuel is still dominant. Global oil crisis in the 1970 s, the us and Europe and Brazil in the search for alternative energy sources such as corn and sugar cane first developed the fuel ethanol as raw material, now the global annual output of 80 million tons. But with the expansion of production scale, and the contradiction between food supply, in 2008 the global food crisis in question.
  随后,美欧等国开始研究以生物质颗粒机的纤维素为原料,用酶法生产纤维素乙醇,但久攻不克,至今生产成本未能达到商业化要求。近年在热化学法上,即以木质纤维素为原料,合成优质生物燃油、航空煤油和润滑油等烃类产品和天然气方面取得了重要进展。这种方法大大拓展了生物能源的原料来源,降低了原料成本,也避免了燃料乙醇的原料制约与小掺比(10%)局限性,是生物质颗粒机科技史上一项里程碑式的革命。令人兴奋的是,我国已有企业在这项技术创新的制高点上走在了世界前列。
Then, the us and Europe and other countries began to study in biomass pellet machine cellulose as raw material, using enzymatic production of cellulosic ethanol, but long attack means, has failed to meet the requirements of commercial production cost. In recent years on the thermalization research method, namely using lignocellulose as raw materials, synthetic biological quality fuel oil, lubricating oil and aviation kerosene hydrocarbon products and natural gas has made important progress. This method has greatly expanded the biological energy sources of raw materials, reducing the costs of raw materials, also to avoid the fuel ethanol raw materials checks and small mixing ratio limitations (10%), biomass pellet machine is a milestone in the history of a revolution. Exciting is that the existing enterprises in our country on the commanding heights of the technology innovation in the top in the world.
  武汉阳光凯迪新能源集团有限公司一座以木质纤维素为原料的高端生物燃油示范生产线已连续运行 3 年,另两座年产 30万吨规模的生产厂正在建设,其技术水平居世界前列。此外,内蒙古金骄集团也以木质纤维素为原料,成功转化出乙酰丙酸等重要的平台化合物中间体,可衍生出生物柴油、汽油、航空煤油等高端生物液体燃料,以及联产多种生物基精细化工产品,于 2009年和 2012年建成两座年产能分别为 10万吨和 8 万吨的生产厂。这一项目投资额低、加工工序简捷、生产过程绿色,是我国的一项独创性成果。
Wuhan sunshine kaidi new energy group co., LTD. A high-end biofuels demonstration for raw material with lignocellulose production line has run three years in a row, the other two annual output of 300000 tons of the size of the factory is under construction, its technical level in the world. In addition, the Inner Mongolia gold arrogant group also with lignocellulose as raw material, successful transformation of the platform of levulinic acid and other important compounds intermediates, biodiesel can be derived and high-end biological liquid fuels such as gasoline, kerosene, and the range of a variety of biological chemical products, built in 2009 and 2009 two annual capacity of 100000 tons and 80000 tons respectively. The project investment is low, green machining process is simple, the production process, is one of our original achievements.
  以上两项技术的突破,使得非粮的木质纤维素可以替代淀粉类和油脂类作为原料,生产高端的生物液体燃料,从而使我国大片没有经济产出的边际性土地可以成为生物质颗粒机油气田。据 2014年国土资源部基于县级的土地调查资料,我国有宜林宜草的边际性土地 16553万公顷。也就是说,这是一片比全国总耕地面积还大的、永不枯竭的绿色油气田。
These two technical breakthrough, make plants grown lignocellulose can replace starch and oil as raw material, the production of high-end biological liquid fuels, thus make our country large no economic output of marginal land can become a biomass pellet machine oil and gas fields. According to the 2014 land survey data based on the county level by the ministry of land and resources, our country has increased appropriate grass marginal land area of 165.53 million hectares. That is to say, this is a is greater than the national total arable land area, never dried up the green fields.
  这两项技术突破的环保意义在于,热化学合成的生物燃料具有突出的减排与克霾功能。美国学者在 20 世纪 80年代开始柴油增氧添加剂的研究,证明在普通柴油中添加 15%— 20%的乙酰丙酸酯可使尾气烟雾粒子减少 50% ~ 60%。但是,由于乙酰丙酸酯主要由葡萄糖或石油基产物转化生产,量少价高,至今未能广泛使用。目前我国在这项技术上实现了突破,已经能做到量大价廉以及以任何比例与普通柴油混配。这一成果在北京柴油车试用中对改善尾气污染效果很好,应广而用之。
These two technologies breakthrough significance of environmental protection, thermal chemical synthesis of biofuels has prominent reduction and grams haze function. American scholars in the 1980 s began to oxygen increasing diesel additive research, in the ordinary diesel oil adding 15% - 20% of levulinic acid ester can be reduced by 50% ~ 60% for exhaust smoke particles. However, because of levulinic acid ester is mainly composed of glucose or petroleum-based products into production, less price is high, have been unable to widespread use. At present our country has realized the breakthrough on the technology, already can do large amount and low price, and in any proportion with ordinary diesel mixed. This results in diesel vehicles in Beijing to try to improve the exhaust pollution effect is very good, should be used widely.
  国际能源组织 2012 年报告称,生物质颗粒机能是世界第四大能源,占世界可再生能源消费量的 78% ;提出为实现 2020年控制大气升温 2℃的目标,需提高生物燃料产量 1倍以上,其中先进生物燃料要求达到现产量的 6倍。在我国推进绿色发展的大背景下,生物质颗粒机能的开发利用可以说大有可为!
The international energy agency in 2012, according to the report function of biomass granule is the world's fourth largest energy, 78% of the world's renewable energy consumption; Put forward for the realization of the control air temperature 2 ℃ 2020 goal, needs to increase biofuel production more than 1 times, including six times that of the advanced biofuels requirements to production now. In our country, promoting the development of the green backdrop, the development and utilization of biomass granule function ", so to speak!

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